RO Plant for Dialysis Units
Water used for the preparation of dialysis fluid is usually derived from a source of drinking water like a municipal water supply. The thing to understand here is that this drinking water can not be used as dialysis water and requires more advanced treatments to bring down chemical and microbial contamination.
Why this is required is because, to put it simply, dialysis patients are exposed to more water and hence more contaminants which build up in their systems causing toxicity that can lead to even death.
Healthy individuals have a weekly water intake of around 14 litres of water (ie, 2 L/day). However, a typical hemodialysis prescription, ie. thrice weekly for four hours per session exposes the patient to more than 500 litres of water per week. Because of this substantially higher exposure to contaminants in water like lead, additional treatment of water used for the preparation of dialysis water is required.
Municipal water also carries higher loads of pathogens including bacteria, viruses, and parasites.
So the bottom line is that drinking water is not safe for use in hemodialysis and must, therefore, be treated further to bring down chemical and biological contamination.
Hemodialysis- The role of water
Hemodialysis is a life-saving treatment and the water that is used to produce dialysis fluid must match set standards. Dialysis fluid that is used in hemodialysis is crucial for the health and wellbeing of patients with kidney disease which means their blood has to be cleaned of harmful impurities.
The treated water is blended with concentrated electrolyte solutions and buffers to produce dialysis fluid that is used for the procedure.
In order to protect hemodialysis patients from exposure to chemical and microbiologic contaminants, strict quality standards for dialysis fluid have been published by both international and national standards organizations.
Quality standards for dialysis water
These have existed for more than 25 years. Current standards focus on the maximum allowable levels of chemical contaminants and the maximum allowable levels of microbiological contaminants and the methods used to measure them. For example, dialysis water should be free of contamination with fluorides, chlorine, and other chemical and organic pollutants. This is critical for the health of the patient as these chemicals can accumulate inside the body of the dialysis patient leading to even death.
Dialysis labs need a water treatment system that decontaminates water up to quality standards for complying with established quality standards to ensure patient safety,
Assuring water quality for dialysis
Haemodialysis should never take place without a multimedia filter, carbon filtration, a 1-micron filter and reverse osmosis, according to experts. Multimedia filters, ultrafilters, deactivated carbon beds and filters are all used for assuring the water quality of dialysis water. But, reverse osmosis has a big role to play in assuring the levels of bacteria and microbes remain under set limits.
High-pressure membrane systems such as reverse osmosis (RO) help drive up removal efficiencies. A two-stage or double RO is one of the most appropriate technologies to remove pathogens from dialysis water as it removes both inorganic and organic solutes including microorganisms, viruses, endotoxins, salts and metals. The RO system has a high rejection rate of 90% to 99%.
Finally, dialysis water quality shall be regularly tested to ensure the quality of water. These are the bare minimum requirements for dialysis water.
To ensure good quality dialysis water a water treatment plant with double RO systems should be operationalized. Hydromo can help you with the design and operationalization of this plant.
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