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Why is India in need of additional wastewater treatment plants?

In spite of the fact that it is making steady progress towards becoming a developed nation, India continues to struggle with the problem of its environment deteriorating. The rapid expansion of industrialisation has resulted in an increase in the amount of toxins that are found in our atmosphere. And wastewater is considered to be one of these contaminants. As a result, the treatment of wastewater through the use of wastewater treatment plants has developed into a significant responsibility.


The volume of India’s wastewater is rising at a startlingly rapid rate due to the country’s rapidly growing population as well as its expanding industrial infrastructure. The depletion of freshwater resources such as groundwater, rivers, and wells, amongst other things, is exacerbating this problem. In order to maintain life, water is one of the most essential resources. In light of this, approaching this circumstance with anything other than the utmost seriousness can lead to us getting into some hot water. The natural environment is capable of neutralising naturally occurring pollutants, such as human and animal waste. However, in this day and age, nature cannot possibly keep up with the vast amounts of wastewater generation that are being generated.


The following is a list of some of the implications of increased quantities of wastewater:


  • Insufficient supplies of clean water for drinking and other essential amenities.
  • The presence of hazardous and poisonous compounds, such as lead and mercury, which have the potential to cause life forms to develop chronic health issues.
  • Soil contamination.
  • contamination of groundwater and other naturally occurring sources of water in the environment.


Treatment of wastewater is the only viable option for addressing the current water shortage that the world is experiencing. There are a few different cutting-edge approaches to treating wastewater. Among them are the following:


Physico-Chemical Treatmen


Depending on the size of the pollutant and the features it possesses, a particular pollutant will require a specific treatment procedure. Because it might be challenging to separate small particles, physicochemical treatment is typically the method of choice for dealing with them in treatment.


Biological Treatment


The elimination of pollutants through the participation of living organisms is the goal of the biological treatment method. The treatment of wastewater can be done in a number of different ways, both aerobic and anaerobic.


Zero liquid discharge


The technology known as zero-liquid discharge is at the forefront of innovation in the field of wastewater treatment. For the purpose of water purification, processes such as reverse osmosis and other membrane-based technologies are utilized. 


The application of these techniques may facilitate the recycling of wastewater and the production of clean water that can be reused for various purposes.


The management of wastewater is becoming increasingly important in a number of different fields, including the following:


  • The manufacturing industry.
  • Treatment of the municipal water supply in cities and towns.
  • Irrigation purposes in rural regions, using water that has been treated.
  • Pharmaceutical industries
  • Malls, theatres, offices, complexes.


In spite of this, there are a number of obstacles that need to be conquered in order to bring the terrifying water situation in India under control, such as the following:


  • Disproportion between the amount of wastewater being produced and the number of treatment plants that are available to process it.
  • Apathy and ignorance on the part of the general populace.
  • Insufficient efforts made on a national scale to raise awareness.
  • Inadequate involvement of the private sector in the treatment of wastewater.


The final note:  Because of rising industrialization, the expansion of commercial and residential sectors, and the concurrent rise in the prevalence of dangerous diseases and pollutants, it is crucial that sewage treatment technologies be modernised in order to ensure a more positive future.


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