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WasteWater Treatment and Management

Waste water Treatment and Management (WWT)

Overview

The need for wastewater treatment systems is mandatory for all industries now. You have to make your industry PCB pollution norms compliant to be able to operate.

Wastewater is any water that requires cleaning after it is used. The goal of wastewater management is to clean and protect water. … This means that water must be clean enough so that it can be used by people for drinking and washing, and by industry for commercial purposes.

We at Hydromo, treat the industrial wastewater using our industry-first, Gold-Standard technology and systems deployed in effluent treatment plants that are specifically designed for the collective treatment of effluent generated from industrial facilities in an industrial cluster.

There are three main stages of the wastewater treatment process, aptly known as primary, secondary and tertiary water treatment. In some applications, more advanced treatment is required, known as quaternary water treatment or ZLD

What is wastewater?

Wastewater is the polluted form of water generated from rainwater runoff and human activities. It is also called sewage. It is typically categorized by the manner in which it is generated—specifically, as domestic sewage, industrial sewage, or storm sewage (stormwater)

How is wastewater generated?

  • Domestic wastewater results from water use in residences, businesses, and restaurants.
  • Industrial wastewater comes from discharges by manufacturing and chemical industries.
  • Rainwater in urban and agricultural areas picks up debris, grit, nutrients, and various chemicals, thus contaminating surface runoff water.

General types of water pollutants include pathogenic organisms, oxygen-demanding wastes, plant nutrients, synthetic organic chemicals, inorganic chemicals, microplastics, sediments, radioactive substances, oil, and heat. Sewage is the primary source of the first three types. Farms and industrial facilities are also sources of some of them. Sediment from eroded topsoil is considered a pollutant because it can damage aquatic ecosystems, and heat (particularly from power-plant cooling water) is considered a pollutant because of the adverse effect it has on dissolved oxygen levels and aquatic life in rivers and lakes.

The 7 R’s

  • RETHINK
  • REFUSE
  • REDUCE
  • REPURPOSE & REPAIR.
  • REUSE.
  • RECYCLE RIGHT.
  • ROT.

The Four Types of Wastewater Treatment Systems

  • Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) Sewage treatment plants remove contaminants from wastewater. …
  • Effluent Treatment Plants (ETPs) …
  • Activated Sludge Plants (ASPs) …
  • Common and Combined Effluent Treatment Plants (CEPTs)

Technologies

Advanced Technologies Pre Treatment /Primary treatment

DAF Systems (Dissolved Air flotation)

This is the latest WWT technology. It has an extremely low footprint where the industries save on the land needed as well as the cost of installation. DAF systems are designed to be cost effective, reliable, land saving and result oriented. They can be mounted even on the roof or in multiples.
DAF systems have an inbuilt Air dissolving tube and flocculation mechanism which help treat the effluent for the separation of solids from the liquids in as low as 5 minutes.
These systems are able to eliminate 99% of suspended solids as well as oil & grease and also 50% of other load parameters found in the effluent like COD, BOD, other organic and inorganic contaminants present in the effluent.

HRSCC

The HRSCC are used in industries where there are heavy solid loads and a lot of space is available, like River water treatment systems, Desalination, Refineries, Oil & Gas.
It is an advanced mechanism to the regular clarifiers.


New technologies are being developed for wastewater treatment
To address these new challenges, a variety of new wastewater treatment technologies such as membrane filtration systems, automatic variable filtration (AVF), advanced oxidation processes (AOP), UV irradiation has been proposed, tested and applied to meet both current and anticipated treatment requirements.

 


Secondary/Biological Treatment

This is a wastewater treatment process which uses ultrafiltration along with a biological process like a suspended growth bioreactor.

Membrane Bio Reactor (MBR)

Membrane bioreactor (MBR) is the combination of a membrane process like microfiltration or ultrafiltration with a biological wastewater treatment process, the activated sludge process. It is now widely used for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment.
In an MBR system, the membranes are submerged in an aerated biological reactor. … This level of filtration allows for high quality effluent to be drawn through the membranes and eliminates the sedimentation and filtration processes typically used for wastewater treatment.

The Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR)

Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) processes improve reliability, simplify operation, and require less space than traditional wastewater treatment systems. MBBR technology employs thousands of polyethylene biofilm carriers operating in mixed motion within an aerated wastewater treatment basin.
MBBR is highly popular because it improves the efficiency of waste disposal with low energy consumption. It is most suited for the removal of organic substances.

Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR)

The sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is a fill-and- draw activated sludge system for wastewater treatment. In this system, wastewater is added to a single “batch” reactor, treated to remove undesirable components, and then discharged.
Sequencing batch reactors (SBR) or sequential batch reactors are a type of activated sludge process for the treatment of wastewater. SBR reactors treat wastewater such as sewage or output from anaerobic digesters or mechanical biological treatment facilities in batches.
This is an activated sludge system for wastewater treatment for treating industrial and sewage wastewater. It uses the four steps of filling, aeration, settling, and decantation of wastewater to make it reusable.


Tertiary Treatment

Automatic Valve-less Gravity Filtration
Advantages

Automatic Valveless Gravity Filters are atmospheric sand filters, often employed as side stream filters in cooling towers circuits for their characteristics:

  • No rotating equipment, no PLC, no ON/OFF valves are associated to the system
  • The capacity to handle high flowrate of water
  • The simple and robust design
  • The little maintenance required

These are the advanced, latest innovative systems which occupy less space than the others technologies and also more efficient in cutting out waste.

AFM Activated Filter Media

AFM® Activated Filter Media is a direct replacement for sand, doubling the performance of sand filters without the need of additional investments in infrastructure. AFM® resists biofouling, biocoagulation and transient wormhole channeling of unfiltered water and never needs to be recharged or replaced.

ACF Activated Carbon Filter

Activated carbon filtration is a commonly used technology based on the adsorption of contaminants onto the surface of a filter. This method is effective in removing certain organics (such as unwanted taste and odours, micropollutants), chlorine, fluorine or radon from drinking water or wastewater.

Multi Grade Filter MGF

Multigrade filter is a depth filter that makes use of coarse and fine media mixed together in a fixed proportion. This arrangement produces a filter bed with adequate pore dimensions for retaining both large and small suspended particles.


Industrial Membrane Systems

Membrane filtration systems are the heart of many separation processes. Application research, equipment design, and fabrication quality are all critical factors in the ultimate success of a project. To start, the proper membrane configuration must be selected. Although there are many formats to choose from such as plate & frame, hollow fiber, and tubular, spiral-wound membranes are often preferred due their well-rounded balance of characteristics. Spiral elements feature excellent membrane packing density (unit area per unit volume), physical and chemical resistance, and unit cost. One important requirement of spiral membranes is that the vast majority of suspended solids and particulates must be removed via pre-filtration.


Hydromo is an ISO-9001:2015 certified manufacturer of spiral-wound membranes and membrane systems, capable of engineering and fabricating reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, and microfiltration membrane systems. Controls design and panel assembly are done in-house, giving us the ability to customize and modify process designs quickly and competently.
In addition, Hydromo offers a full-service application development program, aimed at helping our customers research and prove out their separation performance with as much support as required from our experienced technical team. Throughout the entire process, your Hydromo account manager is there to answer your questions and coordinate with engineering to ensure that all expectations are understood and being met.

Nano Filtration NF

Hydromo Filtration offers a suite of nanofiltration (NF) membranes that are engineered to provide optimal flux and rejection and can be customized to meet the unique requirements of specific process applications. Available in both spiral-wound and flat sheet membrane configurations, nanofiltration membranes are capable of rejecting multivalent salts and larger molecules, while selectively rejecting varying amounts of monovalent salts

Overview

Nanofiltration is a separation process characterized by organic, thin-film composite membranes with a pore size range of 0.1 to 10nm. Unlike reverse osmosis (RO) membranes, which reject all solutes, NF membranes can operate at lower pressures and offer selective solute rejection based on both size and charge.

NF Applications

Nanofiltration membranes are a relatively recent development, and offer greater selectivity of ions vs. reverse osmosis membranes that reject all ion species in a feed stream. This unique characteristic provides flexibility in separation process development that can greatly impact performance and profitability, especially for industrial applications. membrane technology

Micro Filtration MF

Hydromo Filtration offers a wide selection of microfiltration (MF) membranes developed specifically to solve complex process challenges such as microbial removal, protein fractionation, and pre-treatment to other membrane processes. Available in both spiral-wound and flat sheet configurations, microfiltration membranes and membrane systems can be customized to meet specific application goals with efficiency.

Overview

Microfiltration is a low pressure separation process utilizing membranes with very open pore structures. Microfiltration filters can be made with both organic materials, such as polymer based membranes, as well as inorganic materials, such as ceramic or stainless steel. In selecting the appropriate membrane, spiral-wound polymeric microfiltration filters are often the starting point for consideration, based on spiral MF’s balance of durability, membrane area per unit, and significantly lower membrane unit cost, and equipment capital cost vs. ceramic and stainless options.

Ultra-Filtration UF

Hydromo Filtration offers the widest range of ultrafiltration membranes available to provide maximum flexibility in solving unique process challenges. Available in both spiral wound and flat sheet membrane configurations, Hydromo can customize ultrafiltration membranes and membrane systems to meet the specific application goals of our customers.

Overview

Ultrafiltration membranes are capable of separating larger materials such as colloids, particulates, fats, bacteria, and proteins, while allowing sugars, and other low molecular weight molecules to pass through the membrane.
With a pore size range between 0.01 to 0.1µm, ultrafiltration membrane pore sizes fall between that of nanofiltration and microfiltration. UF membranes typically operate between 50 – 120 PSI (3.4 – 8.3 bar) and are dependent on transmembrane pressure to drive the separation process. Other polymeric ultrafiltration membrane characteristics include robust chemical and temperature resistance, and low fouling tendencies if proper pretreatment is employed.

Sea Water Membranes SWRO

SWC4 are the highest salt rejecting membranes used to treat varying levels of seawater salinities and produce low TDS permeate. SWC4 is popularly used in the treatment of sea and highly brackish waters. SWC4 membranes are available in two different types of variants, LD and MAX.

 

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