Reverse osmosis, often referred to as RO, is an advanced water purification method. It is a membrane filtration technology that works by forcing water under pressure through the very tiny pores of a semi-permeable membrane. Modern reverse osmosis units for the home combine membrane technology with carbon and mechanical filtration to produce highly purified, great-tasting water.
It is currently the most effective water filtration method available. This technology is used to produce bottled water.
In Hydromo home units’ water first flows through cartridge filters to remove particles and dust. This is followed a carbon pre-filter, which removes organic contaminants including chlorine and its by-products.
Next, with the help of a low pressure pump, it enters the reverse osmosis membrane, a very tight, sheet-like filter that allows water to pass but rejects dissolved solids like sodium and impurities like lead and arsenic. Some of the water entering the unit is used to cleanse the membrane surface and flows to the kitchen drain pipes.
This is followed by activated carbon filter to attain final clean drinking water. The purified water is stored in a small storage tank until it is needed.
(This is a simplified description of a three-stage RO unit. Additional stages like sediment filters and additional carbon filters can be included. The simplified description omits a few very essential parts like flow control devices, check valves, and an automatic shutoff device that stops the inflow of water when the storage tank is full.)
Most RO systems are designed to be installed under the kitchen sink. They can also be installed in the basement or garage if need be. The water pressure would have to be good, or a pump would be needed though.
By removing some minerals then yes it will make the water slightly more acidic. An alkaline filter can be included with most RO systems that will improve the pH of the filtered water and return it to more natural, alkaline pH levels.
It depends on what you mean by waste.
A home RO unit uses water to wash away impurities. A reverse osmosis unit uses more water in its operation than you actually consume, but it doesn’t use enough that you’ll notice it on your water bill. It uses water only while it’s filling its storage tank. When the tank is full, the whole unit shuts down and no water runs to drain.
In terms of expense, it’s like a couple or three extra toilet flushes a day.
Yes, if you can reach it with a ¼” tube from the under sink RO unit. Pressure is a consideration with some refrigerators, so it’s a good idea to check with the manufacturer. The pressure you’ll get from the RO unit is about ⅔ of the incoming line pressure.
Virtually forever; if you service it regularly and replace parts that wear out. Membrane on the other hand needs to be changed regularly, depending on the nature of the water that it’s processing and the amount of use.
It’s true that the reverse osmosis membrane doesn’t remove chlorine. It doesn’t have to; because it has a couple of high quality carbon filters with it that does the job. In fact, if the first carbon filter didn’t remove all the chlorine, the membrane would get eaten alive in no time.
Statements like this are an obvious effort to deceive. It’s surprising that some very large companies repeat such misrepresentations just to sell their products.
It’s true that RO units remove minerals—about 95% of the mineral content anyway—but he isn’t really telling you the whole story.
The mineral issue is probably the most controversial question in drinking water purification. Experts on both sides of the issue speak convincingly.
The mineral content of water—either high or low—isn’t nearly as important as they would have you believe. That is, minerals in water are inorganic and hard for your body to use. You get most of your minerals from food, which provides organic, easily assimilated minerals.
The human body is a sophisticated instrument capable of adapting to a wide range of circumstances and capable of thriving in areas having water of high or low mineral content. As long as water is palatable, it’s within the body’s acceptable range.
The main issue with water is chemicals, not minerals. Whether water contains 30 or 3 parts per million calcium isn’t really significant, but the difference between 0.05 and 1 parts per million chloroform, lead or arsenic can be life threatening.
In case you are still worried then you can install an alkaline or calcite filter to add the minerals back at the end of the process.
Because they produce great-tasting, very pure water at a very reasonable cost and in a trouble-free, fully automated format.
We’ve found that RO customers are very loyal. And the most frequent comment we get is: “We drink so much more water than we used to.”
First of all, if you compare alkaline water machines to medical equipment, they’re not expensive at all. But I’ll explain how the expense of an alkaline water machine breaks down.
1) The water ionizer contains platinum coated plates. Platinum is quite expensive. Cheap water ionizers that use alloys are not able to ionize as efficiently or safely.
2) Design, electronics, fine workmanship and warranties are also quite costly.
The reason that alkaline water machines must use platinum is: Platinum (along with titanium) is a very hard & dense metal and will not break down and leach into your alkaline ionized water… even over time. So the electrodes will virtually last forever, and Platinum catalyzes [speeds up] the electrolysis process allowing water to ionize instantly as the water passes through the alkaline water machine’s electrolysis chamber. A water ionizer (alkaline water machine) wouldn’t ionize water well at all without platinum. Read more about water ionizer plates.
You may well find so-called “Alkaline Water Scam” pay-per-click ads on the Internet. These alkaline water scam ads and pages are just fake hooks used by certain disreputable water ionizer companies to build on negative curiosity and trick you into going to their site so they can sell you a water ionizer. Alkaline water is not a scam and water ionizers are not scams.
As a matter of fact, while most people in India haven’t heard of alkaline water or water ionizers, they have been around for a very long time and have a very reputable history of helping people and having many benefits.
Electrical energy pioneer Michael Faraday invented electrolysis in the 1800s. His device separated water into hydrogen and oxygen. Later Russia worked to improve the utilization of the technology and by 1966 the Japanese Health and Rehabilitation Ministry confirmed that alkaline ionized water was beneficial for health improvement and medical use.
Today over 30 million people in Asia use water ionizers to assist in their good health.
The use of ionized alkaline water to support and benefit good health is now becoming widely available to people in North America and Europe.
Many medical studies have been done on the use and benefits of water ionizers and alkaline ionized water and clearly prove that alkaline ionized water is nothing close to a scam.
Approximately 15 years ago, with the help of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) appliance, a theory that water does not exist in single unit molecules was confirmed. Water molecules form molecular clusters of approximately 13 water molecules. These clusters constantly repeat an aggregation/disaggregation process. The quality of water and its ability to hydrate directly depends on the size of its clusters.
For example, small clusters have active molecules that increase the capacity of water to dissolve elements (solubility), let elements pass through (permeability), and let heat and electric charge pass through (conduction). Electrolysis gives the water molecules similar charge, which causes them to repel each other and break apart.
Ionized alkaline water has clusters made up of five to six water molecules resulting in a lower molecular weight, better solubility, permeability, and conduction. Standard tap water contains about 12-15 water molecules per cluster.
ORP is the electrical charge needed to reduce or slow down oxidization (decay). Alkaline water must have a negative ORP in order to be considered beneficial to drink. ORP provides the ability to reduce oxygen’s ability to oxidize. ORP can be measured through an electronic hardware device. A negative ORP value (meaning a surplus of electrons) in ionized alkaline water is evidence of its antioxidant power.
How much alkaline water should I drink every day?
Doctors say it is beneficial to drink at least 8 glasses of water per day. If you are not used to drinking a lot of water, start out by drinking 3-4 glasses of alkaline water per day (approx. 1 litre) and gradually increase your water intake to 8-12 glasses per day (2 to 3 litres).
No. Some people have been known to drink 4 or more liters of alkaline ionized water every day and gotten great benefit from it. On the contrary, one of the most common imbalances people have today that leads to health problems is that they are too acidic. The more acidic we are, the greater the chances of illness taking hold in our body. In fact, it is rare for a person to acquire alkalosis, the condition of being too alkaline. To maintain optimal health we should maintain a balanced pH diet that includes alkaline water and alkaline foods such as fruits and vegetables.
When you start drinking alkaline water, normal side effects may include headaches, fatigue, muscle aches, a runny nose, and other flu-like symptoms. Also, your stool will likely be darker, softer, or more odorous and you may experience gas. These side-effects are a good sign, as they are directly related to the detoxification that your body is undergoing as the micro-clustered water penetrates deep into your tissues and expels acid waste and toxins that have accumulated in your body over time. Side-effects will subside once your body has become accustomed to the water, anywhere from 2-3 days to 2-3 weeks, depending on each individual and the level of detoxification that the body needs to undergo.
Each person is different, and as such, the body’s response to drinking alkaline water varies from person to person. You might start noticing a positive response in as little as one day or within a few weeks.
No. Do not drink ionized water 30 minutes before and up to 1.5 – 2 hours after meals. Our stomach needs to be acidic to digest the food we eat, and drinking alkaline water with meals will simply slow down the digestion process.
No. Do not drink ionized water 30 minutes before and up to 2 hours after taking medication. The smaller cluster size of the ionized water makes the water penetrate the cells in our body much more quickly, and it is best not to interfere with the prescribed absorption rate of the medication. You can, however, drink the pure filtered water (pH 7) from the ionizer with your medication.
Have your first glass of the day right when you get out of bed. The water absorbs best into the system when your stomach is empty. Then you should continue to drink alkaline water throughout the day. Remember not to drink ionized water 30 minutes before and up to 2 hours after meals and medication.
Some people must start by drinking very small amounts of alkaline water, such as 1-2 glasses of Level 1 (8.5 pH) per day. This is especially true of older people who often have accumulated toxins in their bodies over the course of their lifetime. Children under the age of 3 should not drink alkaline water, but only purified water from the ionizer (pH 7). Thus, they will benefit from the ionizer’s filtration that removes chlorine and other contaminants from tap water. Children between the ages of 4 years and 12 years should only drink alkaline water at Level 1 (one) or Level 2 (two).
Yes. Water that enters the ionizers first goes through a filter that removes the taste and odor of chlorine contained in municipal tap water. Then electrolysis breaks down the size of the water clusters, from 12-16 molecules to micro-clusters of 5-8 molecules. This makes the water taste smoother and silkier. Alkaline water tastes great, and makes better tasting coffee, tea and juice. It is also wonderful to cook with because it helps hydrate the food and bring out its flavor.
All consumer sized water ionizers are designed for immediate “point of use” consumption. The water molecules that have been separated and rendered instable through electrolysis will slowly come back into a stable state. This is the reason that ionized water cannot be bottled as its properties are temporary. The antioxidant properties (hydroxyl ions) of alkaline ionized water will dissipate in 18-24 hours, the higher pH properties will come back to a neutral pH level of 7 within 1-2 weeks, and the smaller molecule cluster size will last approximately 1-3 months. It is best to drink alkaline water straight from the ionizer, but failing that, store the water in a glass container in a dark, cool place, such as the refrigerator.
Aquaponics is the merging together of aquaculture and hydroponics. The problems with these are the same, you have to discard the water after a while because of pollution but when you put the two of them together, if forms a system where the water polluted by the fish becomes the nutrients for the plants. The new symbiotic relationship is called aquaponics.
Yes. It is about twice as fast as a soil garden and you can plant much closer together. In a normal garden, the nutrients are in the soil and in our system the nutrients are in the water. Planting close together is not a bad thing at all.
Once everything is set up, is very simple. Daily maintenance is feeding the fish, checking the plants for insects and making sure that all your pumps are running correctly.
Your aquaponic water does need to be free of chlorine and chloramines, as these are toxic to both fish and plants. If your local municipalities use only chlorine than you can aerate the water heavily (24-48 hours) which will off-gas the chlorine; If they use chloramines in the filtration process, then aeration will not work, and a de-chlorinator or vitamin c must be added to breakdown the chloramines into a non-toxic form.
That depends on the type of plant you are growing, but in general you can plant about twice as densely in aquaponics as you can in a traditional soil-based garden. This is because your aquaponics plants are getting exactly what they need at the root zone (nutrients, water, oxygen) so the plant doesn’t need to send its roots out searching for these things. The result is extremely compact, healthy roots and less competition for nutrients and water below “ground”. Your limiting factor is really how much light is getting to the plant. Check the space recommendations on the seed packet to get a better idea of how much room your plant will need at the full grow-out size, and know that these spacings were typically made for soil gardens so you can likely plant them closer. Just keep in mind that airflow/circulation is an important aspect of plant health and pest control, so give everyone enough room to breathe freely!
In an aquaponic system, the fish feed is one of the most important inputs. There is a direct relationship between the feed going into the system and the growth of your plants. Think about it: You add feed into the system, the fish eat the feed and produce ammonia, bacteria convert ammonia into nitrates, the plants consume the nitrates and grow. Because of this relationship, balancing the proper amount of feed entering the system is essential to the overall success of the system. When sizing an aquaponic system, you can use the formula, 20 g of feed per square meter of Deep Water Culture growing area. Using this formula, you can calculate the amount of feed needed in your system.
Only feed the fish what they will consume in 5 minutes – scoop out any uneaten fish food to avoid unwanted water quality issues. If your aquaponic fish don’t seem to be hungry don’t feed them. Fish can survive for weeks without feeding.
If you are cycling your system with fish, feeding should be kept to an absolute minimum during the first 1-2 months. Once your nitrifying bacteria levels can quickly digest ammonia and nitrites in your system, increase feeding levels, again paying attention to how much the fish consume in 5 minutes. We prefer to feed our fish 2-3 times per day, to encourage a steady metabolic digestion rate and maintain a steady amount of solids.
There are a lot of different kinds of fish that you can grow: Tilapia, catfish, trout, bass. We recommend Tilapia if your climate is warm. They are a fast growing fish & do not acquire diseases very quickly and they can handle all kinds of bad water. If you are mixing fish species together in the same tank, be sure that they have similar living requirements. Do they all prefer the same water temperature, eat the same food, and have the same oxygen requirements?
Don’t mix carnivorous fish with herbivores, or you will find that you are just providing an expensive meal for your carnivores! We have found that tilapia, other cichlids such as oscars, pacu, goldfish, and koi all co-exist well together in an aquaponics system.
Flowers and vegetables, though, some vegetables grow better than others in hydroponic systems, such as spinach, lettuce, cucumbers, peppers, and strawberries, to name a few.
If all of your fish die, you have a serious issue. Probably the ammonia level is out of hand. You will need to discharge all the water and replace it with fresh water and test the water to make sure it is safe before you add fish. To help prevent this from happening check your system daily to ensure the system is running properly and test your water regularly, then take action as needed.
From what I have researched, shrimp or crayfish are a bad idea. They tend to eat everything in the system including the plants. They can also crawl from one grow bed to another so they are very difficult to contain. Fish would be a safer option.
If sunlight hits any part of your water, it will turn green because of algae. If you have a net pot in your raft that does not have a plant in it, we recommend putting some clay pebbles in that net pot. If you do not, you will get algae scum growing in the bottom of the net pot.
Absolutely not. Commercial pesticides will kill your fish.
Mix one 4 liter of water, a quarter cup of molasses, 1 teaspoon chili powder and about 3-5 drops of dish soap. Spray on plants.
The process of growing plants in sand, gravel, or liquid (or other mediums), with added nutrients but without soil. The main principles of hydroponics are increased oxygen to the root zone and liquid feed delivered directly to roots. These factors result in increased growth rates and increased yields when compared to tradition soil gardens where much lower oxygen and often nutrient levels are present.
Hydroponic gardening is better than soil gardening for several reasons. More plants can generally be grown in the same amount of space when compared to traditional soil gardens. Roots are delivered nutrients instead of having to stretch out in search of them. Also hydroponic gardens can be stacked to further increase space efficiency. The main benefit to hydroponic gardening is much higher oxygen levels in the root zone when compared to a soil garden. This increased oxygen means increased nutrient uptake and much higher rates of growth. It is also much easier to control the nutrient levels in hydroponic gardens compared to soil gardens.
Yes, Hydroponic gardens can be used outdoors. Some of the challenges may be keeping the nutrient solution at appropriate temperatures in hot or cold environments. In order to combat this, gardeners will employ the use of chillers and heaters. In situations where power is expensive or the gardener wants to use a more natural approach, reservoirs can be buried deep in the ground to regulate temperature. Roots too hot can cause anaerobic bacteria from growing and harming the plants, and roots too cold will slow plant growth.
Yes, there are many organic nutrients available for use in hydroponic gardens. More care will be needed to ensure a clean system when using organics for hydroponics.
Most plants grow well in hydroponic applications, although some are more difficult than others. Some plants such as varieties that product bulbs are better suited for soilless mediums than they are for say deep water culture. However, almost every plant that grows from seed will excel in a hydroponic garden.
Yes, however it may be difficult to satisfy the nutritional requirements of different plants in the same system. Gardeners are best off to grow similar plants in one system or even a mono crop (all of the same). It is possible to grow green leafy vegetables in one system for example and tomatoes or flowering vegetables in another. The more variation between plants in a system, the more difficult it is to accommodate.
The most common growing medias include rockwool and perlite; however, other popular medias consist of bark chips, fibers, sand, and rock.
When water is referred to as ‘hard’ this simply means, that it contains more minerals than ordinary water. These are especially the minerals calcium and magnesium. The degree of hardness of the water increases, when more calcium and magnesium dissolves.
Magnesium and calcium are positively charged ions. Because of their presence, other positively charged ions will dissolve less easily in hard water than in water that does not contain calcium and magnesium.
This is the cause of the fact that soap doesn’t really dissolve in hard water.
In many industrial applications, such as the drinking water preparation, in breweries and in sodas, but also for cooling- and boiler feed water the hardness of the water is very important.
When water contains a significant amount of calcium and magnesium, it is called hard water. Hard water is known to clog pipes and to complicate soap and detergent dissolving in water. Water softening is a technique that serves the removal of the ions that cause the water to be hard, in most cases calcium and magnesium ions. Iron ions may also be removed during softening. The best way to soften water is to use a water softener unit and connect it directly to the water supply.
A water softener is a unit that is used to soften water, by removing the minerals that cause the water to be hard.
Water softening is an important process, because the hardness of water in households and companies is reduced during this process. When water is hard, it can clog pipes and soap will dissolve in it less easily. Water softening can prevent these negative effects. Hard water causes a higher risk of lime scale deposits in household water systems. Due to this lime scale build-up, pipes are blocked and the efficiency of hot boilers and tanks is reduced. This increases the cost of domestic water heating by about fifteen to twenty percent. Another negative effect of lime scale is that it has damaging effects on household machinery, such as laundry machines. Water softening means expanding the life span of household machine, such as laundry machines, and the life span of pipelines. It also contributes to the improved working, and longer lifespan of solar heating systems, air conditioning units and many other water-based applications.
Water softeners are specific ion exchangers that are designed to remove ions, which are positively charged. Softeners mainly remove calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+) ions. Calcium and magnesium are often referred to as ‘hardness minerals’. Softeners are sometimes even applied to remove iron. The softening devices are able to remove up to five milligrams per liter (5 mg/L) of dissolved iron. Softeners can operate automatic, semi-automatic, or manual. Each type is rated on the amount of hardness it can remove before regeneration is necessary. A water softener collects hardness minerals within its conditioning tank and from time to time flushes them away to drain. Ion exchangers are often used for water softening. When an ion exchanger is applied for water softening, it will replace the calcium and magnesium ions in the water with other ions, for instance sodium or potassium. The exchanger ions are added to the ion exchanger reservoir as sodium and potassium salts (NaCl and KCl).
A good water softener will last many years. Softeners that were supplied in the 1980’s may still work, and many need little maintenance, besides filling them with salt occasionally.
Some softeners are more efficient than others and as a result the prizes may differ. There are time operated softeners and water meter-controlled softeners available. The water meter-controlled units produce the softest water per pound of salt.
Some softeners work on electricity, but some more recent water softeners use waterpower. Costs of a water softener greatly depend upon the type of water softener and the type of energy that is used, but also upon the hardness of the water that needs softening and the water use. When the water is very hard and it is used heavily, the costs of softening will rise.
Softened water still contains all the natural minerals that we need. It is only deprived off its calcium and magnesium contents, and some sodium is added during the softening process. That is why in most cases, softened water is perfectly safe to drink. It is advisable that softened water contains only up to 300mg/L of sodium.
In areas with very high hardness the softened water must not be used for the preparation of baby-milk, due to the high sodium content after the softening process has been carried out.
Salt does not have the opportunity to enter drinking water through softening installations.
The only purpose of salt in a water softener is to regenerate the resin beads that take the hardness out of water.
The sodium uptake through softened water depends on the hardness of the water. Averagely, less than 3% sodium uptake comes from drinking softened water.
Estimates say that a person consumes about two to three teaspoons of salt a day, from various sources. Assuming a daily intake of five grams of sodium through food and the consumption of three quarts of water, the contribution of sodium (Na+) in the water from the home water softening process, is minimal compared to the total daily intake of many sodium-rich foods.
Softening will not deprive water of its essential minerals. Softening only deprives drinking water of minerals that cause the water to be hard, such as calcium, magnesium and iron.
Pneumatic systems use pressurized gas or air to move media and when found in industrial applications are commonly powered by compressed inert gases or compressed air. A centrally located compressor is used to power cylinders, motors, and other pneumatic devices, including pumps. These systems are often controlled through either a manual or automatic solenoid valve and can provide a more flexible, lower cost, and safer alternative to electric or gas-powered motors.
Pressure and flow are inversely related–that is, if pressure is increased, then flow decreases, and vice versa. “Pressure” is the amount of force per area, and “flow” is the volume of material moving through a given area per second (not the same as velocity, which is the distance traveled per time).
Water pressure is caused by resistance to flow. If a force tries to move water and there is resistance to that movement, then the water becomes pressurized. Consider a standard garden hose; when the end of the hose is unrestricted, water flows out of the hose in large quantities, but without much force. If you press your thumb over the opening, however, the stream of water that shoots out from around your thumb will be much more forceful and will travel further, but there will also be less water per second leaving the hose.
A centrifugal pump is ‘dead-headed’ when it is operated without an open discharge outlet. Contrary to what one might assume, centrifugal pumps cannot be stalled if water flow is cut off. Very little horsepower input is required in order to spin the impeller with no water flow, so if the pump is driven by a hydraulic motor, the input hydraulic pressure will be low and the pump will not stall, instead continuing to spin the same volume of water as it would during normal operation. With no outlet, the rotational energy of the shaft and impeller is converted into heat; eventually, the water will boil inside the volute, causing severe damage over time.
When the inlet pressure of a water pump falls below pump design specifications, tiny vapor bubbles can form in the water around the eye of the impeller. When the water containing these bubbles is forced into a high pressure environment on the other side of the impeller, these bubbles collapse, thereby creating tiny shock waves and points of high temperature. These shock waves can actually corrode the surface of the impeller. To prevent cavitation, always be sure to operate your water pump within its pressure and flow specifications.
Absolutely. The water pump shaft and impeller are spinning at extremely fast rates. With no water to transfer their rotational energy to, that energy is released as heat instead. If the pump is run dry, its moving parts will become extremely hot, causing severe damage to the pump over time and greatly limiting its service life.
There could be several factors behind this:
Is there enough water? Check to ensure that there is enough water present in the tank to allow safe pumping.
Beware of air locks. If there is too little water in the tank, the pump may have drawn in a large air pocket that is preventing the flow of water (see What is an air lock? question below).
Is the lift displacement too great? If you are operating a suction lift pump, be sure that the water reservoir you are drawing from is no more than 7 feet below the pump, otherwise the resistance to flow may be too great.
Are you using pipes that are too small or have too many elbows? Pumping water through small diameter pipes (and pipes with elbows and check valves) increases the water pressure, but as a result also increases flow resistance. If the resistance is too great, your pump will not perform.
An air lock occurs when large pockets of air are drawn into the inlet side of the water pump. This essentially acts as a void, and can prevent the pump from drawing in water. Not only will this decrease (or even stop) pump performance, it can be very damaging as well. If the air pocket is drawn through the impeller and into an area of high water pressure, the bubbles will collapse and create large shock waves that will severely damage the pump.
Water pump shaft failures can be caused by several factors:
Sudden start or stop of the pump.
Pump rpm should be ramped up and down over a minimum of 2 seconds.
Engaging a water pump suddenly can twist the impeller off the shaft and damage shaft bearings.
Water hammer caused by sudden shut off of water flow can cause the impeller to break the pump shaft and damage shaft bearings over time.
An unbalanced or damaged impeller can cause shaft failure and bearing damage over time.
Water pumps rotate either clockwise or counterclockwise as viewed from the drive shaft end of the pump. To determine rotation direction position the pump with the shaft end facing yourself. If the outlet of the pump is facing 90 degrees to the right, straight down on the right side of the pump centerline, or straight up on the left side of the pump centerline, then it is a clockwise rotation pump.
If the outlet of the pump is facing 90 degrees to the left, straight down on the left of the pump centerline, or straight up on the right side of the pump centerline, it is a counterclockwise pump.
Ensure the shaft is spinning in the correct direction. The pump will flow a little bit of water when run backwards. Refer to how to determine whether your pump is clockwise or counterclockwise. Check to see if the impeller is still connected to the shaft.
While most water pumps are fairly quiet during operation, hydraulic drive motors can be quite noisy. Ensure that the noise you hear is in fact coming from the water pump. If the pump is making a growling, grinding, squealing, or popping noise, it should be immediately disassembled and inspected for damage.
Find and refer to the water pump performance curve chart for the water pump you have, available in this manual and on our website. Water pressure should be checked with water in the tank and water pump, and with no spray heads open while the tractor engine’s at high idle. To obtain acceptable spray performance, a minimum of 85 psi water pressure under static conditions (no water flowing) is required. A static water pressure exceeding 125 psi can cause damage to water lines, connections, and spray heads.