The removal of mineral components from salt water is accomplished by a process known as desalination.
It is a term that describes the process of extracting salts and minerals from a certain substance (like soil desalination, an issue for agriculture).
The technique of reverse osmosis, in which external pressure is applied to push solvents from an area of high solute concentration to an area of low-solute concentration via a membrane, is the one that is utilized for the procedure the vast majority of the time.
The water molecules are able to pass through the membranes’ minuscule pores, but the salt and the majority of other pollutants are left behind. This results in the pure water being released on the opposite side.
In India, There Is an Urgent Need for Desalination Plants
Water shortages are a persistent issue in India’s most important urban centers. The city obtains its water supply from both ground and surface water sources, however, this supply is not sufficient to meet the city’s current demand for water. In addition, because of an increase in the extraction of groundwater, subsurface aquifers are being depleted at a rapid rate, and it is only anticipated that the need for water will continue to grow in the foreseeable future.
At this time, BMC is only able to supply 3850 MLD despite the fact that the daily requirement is 4200 MLD. It has been estimated that the population of Mumbai will reach 1.72 crores by the year 2041, and as a result, the city’s expected water consumption will be 6424 MLD by that time.
It is anticipated that the desalination project will provide residents of Mumbai with respite in the form of a 10-15% reduction in water cut.
Desalination Plants – Strengths
Desalination facilities are able to fulfill the demand for drinking water in regions that do not have a natural source of water that is suitable for consumption because they are able to meet or surpass the quality standards for the water.
It is a source that can extend water supplies beyond what is available from the hydrological cycle by supplying an “unlimited,” climate independent, and consistent supply of high-quality water. This makes it a source that can extend water supplies. Check out the website that’s linked here if you want to learn more about the Hydrological Cycle.
Desalination plants have the additional benefit of lowering the amount of stress placed on the subsurface aquifers that supply freshwater.
As a byproduct of water desalination, brine can contain valuable elements such as uranium, magnesium, strontium, sodium, and others that have the potential to be mined. This can turn an environmental issue into an opportunity for economic growth.